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Charles A. Perfetti, Ph.D.

Professor, Department of Phychology, Director and Senior Scientist, Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh

B.S. -- University of Illinois, 1962, Psychology, Minors: Mathematics & History
Ph.D. -- University of Michigan, 1967, Psychology (Experimental)

Dr. Perfetti's central research interest is in the cognitive science of language and reading processes, including lower and higher level processes and the nature of reading ability. His approach involves research in a cognitive (behavioral) lab, ERPs, and collaborative research in neuroimaging (fMRI), and, recently, MEG. The general goal is to achieve a richer view of language processes by the combination of methods. Current projects include the following:

  1. The identification of universal and writing-system specific components of reading. Comparisons of Chinese and English word identification processes are the heart of this empirical program, and recent papers develop a theoretical model of Chinese word identification. These studies include neuroimaging (fMRI) and ERP studies. Currently, more active work concerns learning across writing systems.
  2. The Lexical Quality Hypothesis. This work represents my long-standing interest in understanding the components of reading ability. Our experiments suggest the importance of lexical representations as a major source of individual differences in simple comprehension tasks, consistent with our earlier theories of individual differences in comprehension (Perfetti, 1985, 1992).
  3. Learning new words. Connected to the lexical quality work is research on learning the meanings (and forms) of new words. Both children and adults, and both behavioral and ERP studies.
  4. Text comprehension: Word-based and inference processes. ERPS provide word by word records of comprehension allowing tests of word-to-text integration processes and processes that the reader uses to fill the implicit information in a text.
  5. Learning a second language as an adult. Emphasis on reading in L2, but also learning the language itself. Studies of English learners of Chinese and learners of English as a second language. This work is carried out through the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center. http://www.learnlab.org/

Recent Publications:

2016

2013

  • Perfetti, C.A., Cao, F., Booth, J. (2013). Specialization and universals in the development of reading skill: How Chinese research informs a universal science of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(1):5-21.

2012

  • Perfetti, C. A., Adlof, S. M. (2012). Reading comprehension: A conceptual framework from word meaning to text meaning. In J. Sabatini, E. Albro, T. O'Reilly (Eds.), Measuring Up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
  • Halderman, L. K., Ashby, J., & Perfetti, C. A. (2012). Phonology: An early and integral role in identifying words. In J. Adelman (Ed.), Visual Word Recognition, Volume I: Models and methods, orthography and phonology. Psychology Press.
  • Jamal, N.I., Piche, A.W., Napoliello, E.M., Perfetti, C.A., Eden, G.F. (2012). Neural basis of single-word reading in Spanish-English bilinguals. Human Brain Mapping, 33(1):235-45.

2011

  • Dunlap, S., Perfetti, C. A., Liu, Y., & Wu, S.-M. (2011). Learning vocabulary in Chinese as a foreign language: Effects of explicit instruction and semantic cue reliability.
  • Perfetti, C.A. (2011). Reading processes and reading problems: Progress toward a universal reading science. In P. McCardle, J. Ren, O. Tzeng, B.Miller (Eds.), Dyslexia Across Languages: Orthography and the Brain-Gene-Behavior Link. Brookes: Baltimore, MD.
  • Liu, Y., Wang, M., Perfetti, C. A., Brubaker, B., Wu, S., MacWhinney, B. (2011). Learning a tonal language by attending to the tone: An in-vivo experiment. Language Learning, 61(4):1119-41.
  • Adlof, S. M., Perfetti, C. A., & Catts, H. W. (2011). Developmental changes in reading comprehension: Implications for assessment and instruction. In S. J. Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (pp. 186-214). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
  • Cheng, C., Wang, M., & Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Acquisition of compound words in Chinese-English bilingual children: Decomposition and cross-language activation. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 583-600.
  • de Jong, N., & Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Fluency training in the ESL classroom: An experimental study of fluency development and proceduralization. Language Learning, 61(2), 533-568.
  • Frishkoff, G. A., Perfetti, C. A., & Collins-Thompson, K. (2011). Predicting robust vocabulary growth from measures of incremental learning. Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(1), 71-91.
  • Guan, C. Q., Liu, Y., Chan, D. H. L., Ye, F., & Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Writing strengthens orthography and alphabetic-coding strengthens phonology in learning to read Chinese. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 509-522.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Phonology is critical in reading: But a phonological deficit is not the only source of low reading skill. In S. A. Brady, D. Braze, & C. A. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading (pp. 153-171). New York: Routledge.
  • Reichle, E. D., Tokowicz, N., Liu, Y., & Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Testing an assumption of the E-Z Reader Model of eye-movement control during reading: Using event-related potentials to examine the familiarity check. Psychophysiology, 48, 993-1003.
  • Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, (2011). Morphological processing in reading acquisition: A cross-linguistic perspective. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 457-466.
  • Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2011). Vocabulary growth and reading skill. Introduction to special issue of Scientific Studies of Reading, 15(1), 1-7.

2010

  • Balass, M., Nelson, J. R., & Perfetti, C. A. (2010). Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35, 126-140.
  • Frishkoff, G.A., Perfetti, C.A., & Collins-Thompson, K. (2010). Lexical quality in the brain: ERP evidence for robust word learning from context. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35(4), 1-28.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (2010). Decoding, vocabulary, and comprehension: The golden triangle of reading skill. In M. G. McKeown & L. Kucan (Eds.), Bringing reading researchers to life: Essays in honor of Isabel Beck (pp. 291-303). New York: Guilford. (Submitted)
  • Perfetti, C. A. (2010). Reading. In P. C. Hogan (Ed.), Cambridge encyclopedia of the language sciences (pp. 699-702). Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut.(Submitted)
  • Perfetti, C. A., Nelson, J., Liu, Y., Fiez, J., & Tan, L-H. (2010). The neural bases of reading: Universals and writing system variations. In P. Cornelissen, M. Kringelbach, & P. Hansen (Eds.), The neural basis of reading (pp. 147-172). Oxford University Press.
  • Yang, C. L., Perfetti, C. A., & Liu, Y. (2010). Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses. Brain & Language, 112, 85-100.

2009

  • Frishkoff, G. A., Perfetti, C. A., & Westbury, C. (2009). ERP measures of partial semantic knowledge: Left temporal indices of skill differences and lexical quality. Biological Psychology, 80, 130-147.
  • Frishkoff, G. A., White, G., & Perfetti, C. A. (2009). In vivo testing of learning and instructional principles: The design and implementation of school-based experimentation. In L. M. Dinella (Ed.), Conducting science-based psychology research in schools (pp. 153-173). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Nelson, J. R., Liu, Y., Fiez, J., & Perfetti, C. A. (2009). Assimilation and accommodation patterns in ventral occipitotemporal cortex in learning a second writing system. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 810-820.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (2009). La Maison hypertext. In M. Bernstein & D. Greco (Eds.), Reading hypertext (pp. 19-20). Watertown, MA: Eastgate Systems.

2008

  • Bolger, D. J., Balass, M., Landen, E. & Perfetti, C. A. (2008). Contextual variation and definitions in learning the meaning of words. Discourse Processes, 45(2), 122-159.
  • Frishkoff, G. A., Collins-Thompson, K., Perfetti, C. A., & Callan, J. (2008). Measuring incremental changes in word knowledge: Experimental validation and implications for learning assessment. Behavioral Research Methods 40(4), 907-925.
  • Hart, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2008). Learning words in Zekkish: Implications for understanding lexical representation. In E. L. Grigorenko & A. J. Naples (Eds.),Single word reading: Behavioral and biological perspectives (pp. 107-128). New York: Taylor & Francis.
  • Perfetti, C. A., & Dunlap, S. (2008). Learning to read: General principles and writing system variations. In K. Koda & A. Zehler (Eds.). Learning to read across languages (pp. 13-38). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Perfetti, C., & Frishkoff, G. A. (2008).The neural bases of text and discourse processing. In B. Stemmer & H. A. Whitaker (Eds.), Handbook of theneurosciencce of language (pp. 165-174). Cambridge, MA: Elsevier. (Submitted)
  • Perfetti, C. A., Yang, C-L., & Schmalhofer, F. (2008). Comprehension skill and word-to-text processes. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(3), 303-318.
  • Siok, W. T., Niu, Z. Jin, Z., Perfetti, C. A. & Tan, L. H. (2008). A structural-functional basis for dyslexia in the cortex of Chinese readers. PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences), 105(14), 5561-5566.
  • Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2008). Introduction. Advances in text comprehension: Model, process and development. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22(3), 293-301.

2007

  • Chen, B. G., Zhou, H. X., Dunlap, S., & Perfetti, C. A. (2007). Age of acquisition effects in reading Chinese: Evidence in favor of the Arbitrary Mapping Hypothesis. British Journal of Psychology, 98(3), 499-506.
  • Landi, N., & Perfetti, C. A. (2007). An electrophysiological investigation of semantic and phonological processing in skilled and less-skilled comprehenders. Brain and Language, 102, 30-45.
  • Liu, Y., Dunlap, S., Fiez, J., & Perfetti, C.A. (2007). Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning. Human Brain Mapping,28, 1223-1234.
  • Liu, Y., Wang, M., & Perfetti, C. A. (2007). Threshold-style processing of Chinese characters for adult second-language learners. Memory and Cognition, 35(3), 471-480.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (2007). Reading ability: Lexical quality to comprehension. Scientific Studies of Reading,11(4), 357-383.
  • Perfetti, C. A., Liu, Y., Fiez, J. Nelson, J., Bolger, D. J., & Tan, L-H. (2007). Reading in two writing systems: Accommodation and Assimilation in the brain's reading network. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10(2), 131-146. Special issue on "Neurocognitive approaches to bilingualism: Asian languages", P. Li (Ed.).
  • Schmalhofer, F., & Perfetti, C. A. (Eds.). (2007). Higher level language processes in the brain: Inference and comprehension processes. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Schmalhofer, F., & Perfetti, C. A. (2007). Neural and behavioral indicators of integration processes across sentence boundaries. In F. Schmalhofer & C. Perfetti (Eds.), Higher level language processes in the brain: Inference and comprehension processes (pp. 161-188). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Yang, C-L., Perfetti, C. A., & Schmalhofer, F. (2007). Event-related potential indicators of text integration across sentence boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33(1), 55-89.

2006

  • Goldberg, R.F., Perfetti, C.A., Schneider, W. (2006). Distinct and common cortical activations for multimodal semantic categories. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 6(3), 214-222.
  • Goldberg, R. F., Perfetti, C. A., & Schneider, W. (2006). Perceptual knowledge retrieval activates sensory brain regions. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(18) 4917-4921.
  • Landi, N., Perfetti, C. A., Bolger, D. J., Dunlap, S., & Foorman, B. R. (2006). The role of discourse context in developing word form representations: A paradoxical relationship between reading and learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 94(2), 114-133.
  • Liu, Y., Perfetti, C. A., & Wang, M. (2006). Visual analysis and lexical access of Chinese characters by Chinese as second language readers. Linguistics and Language, 7(3), 637-657.
  • Massaro, D. W., Liu, Y., Chen, T. H., & Perfetti, C. A. (2006). A multilingual embodied conversational agent for tutoring speech and language learning.Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (Interspeech 2006 - ICSLP, September, Pittsburgh, PA) (pp. 825-828).University of Bonn, Germany.
  • Perfetti, C. A., & Liu, Y. (2006). Reading Chinese characters: Orthography, phonology, meaning, and the Lexical Constituency Model. In P. Li, L. H. Tan, E. Bates, & O. J. L. Tzeng (Eds.), Handbook of East Asian psycholinguistics (pp. 225-236). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Perfetti, C. A., Tan, L. H., & Siok, W. T. (2006). Brain-behavior relations in reading and dyslexia: Implications of Chinese results. Brain and Language, 98, 344-346.

2005

  • Bolger, D. J., Perfetti, C. A., & Schneider, W. (2005). A cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation. Journal of Human Brain Mapping, 25(1), 83-91.
  • Nelson, J. R., Balass, M., & Perfetti, C. A. (2005). Differences between written and spoken input in learning new words. Written Language & Literacy, 8(2), 25-44.
  • Perfetti, C. A., Landi, N., & Oakhill, J. (2005). The acquisition of reading comprehension skill. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 227-247). Oxford: Blackwell. (Submitted)
  • Perfetti, C. A., & Liu, Y. (2005). Orthography to phonology and meaning: Comparisons across and within writing systems. Reading and Writing, 18(3), 193-210.
  • Perfetti, C. A., Liu, Y., & Tan, L. H. (2005). The Lexical Constituency Model: Some implications of research on Chinese for general theories of reading. Psychological Review, 12(11), 43-59.
  • Perfetti, C. A., Wlotko, E. W., & Hart, L. A. (2005). Word learning and individual differences in word learning reflected in Event-Related Potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 31(6), 1281-1292.
  • Tan, L. H., Spinks, J. A., Eden, G., Perfetti, C. A., & Siok, W. T. (2005). Reading depends on writing, in Chinese. PNAS, 102, 8781-8785.
  • Tokowicz, N., & Perfetti, C. A. (2005). Introduction to section II: Comprehension. In J. F. Kroll & A. M. B. de Groot (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches (pp. 173-177). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Wang, M., Perfetti, C. A., & Liu, Y. (2005). Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition: Cross-language and writing system transfer. Cognition, 97, 67-88.
  • Yang, C. L., Perfetti, C. A., & Schmalhofer, F. (2005). Less skilled comprehenders' ERPs show sluggish word-to-text integration process. Written Language & Literacy, 8(2), 233-257.

2004

  • Britt, M. A., Wiemer-Hastings, P., & Perfetti, C. A. (2004). Using intelligent feedback to improve sourcing and integration in students' essays. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 14(3), 359-374.
  • Perfetti, C. A., & Bolger, D. J. (2004). The brain might read that way. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8(3), 293-304.
  • Siok, W. T., Perfetti, C. A., Jin, Z., & Tan, L. H. (2004). Biological abnormality of impaired reading constrained by culture: Evidence from Chinese. Nature, September 1, 71-76.
  • Wang, M., Liu, Y., & Perfetti, C. A. (2004). The implicit and explicit learning of orthographic structure and function of a new writing system. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8(4), 357-379.

2003

  • Liu, Y., & Perfetti, C. A. (2003). The time course of brain activity in reading English and Chinese: An ERP study of Chinese bilinguals. Journal of Human Brain Mapping, 18(3), 167-175.
  • Liu, Y., Perfetti, C. A., & Hart, L. (2003). ERP evidence for the time course of graphic, phonological, and semantic information in Chinese meaning and pronunciation decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 29(6), 1231-1247.
  • McCandliss, B., Beck, I. L., Sandak, R., & Perfetti, C. (2003). Focusing attention on decoding for children with poor reading skills: Design and preliminary tests of the Word Building intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7(1), 75-104.
  • Perfetti, C.A. (2003). The universal grammar of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7(1), 3-24.
  • Reichle, E. D., & Perfetti, C. A. (2003). Morphology in word identification: A word-experience model that accounts for morpheme frequency effects. Scientific Studies of Reading. 7(1), 219-238.
  • Tan, L.H., Spinks, J.A., Feng, C.M., Siok, W.T., Perfetti, C.A., Xiong, J., Fox, P.T., & Gao, J.H. (2003). Neural systems of second language reading are shaped by native language. Human Brain Mapping, 18, 158-166.
  • Verhoeven, L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2003). Introduction to This Special Issue: The role of morphology in learning to read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7(3), 209-218.
  • Wang, M., Koda, K., &, Perfetti, C. A. (2003). Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: A comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners. Cognition, 87, 129-149.
  • Wang, M., Perfetti, C. A., & Liu, Y. (2003). Alphabetic readers quickly acquire orthographic structure in learning to read Chinese. Scientific Studies of Reading,7(2), 183-208.

2002

    Booth, J. R. & Perfetti, C.A. (2002). Onset and rime structure influences naming but not early word identification in children and adults. Scientific Studies ofReading, 6(1), 1-23. Perfetti, C.A., & Hart, L. (2002). The lexical quality hypothesis. In L. Vehoeven. C. Elbro, & P. Reitsma (Eds.), Precursors of functional literacy (pp. 189-213). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Perfetti, C. A., Liu, Y., & Tan, L.H. (2002). How the mind can meet the brain in reading: A comparative writing systems approach. In H. S. R. Kao, C-K. Leong, & D-G. Gao (Eds.), Cognitive neuroscience studies of the Chinese language (pp. 36-60). Hong Kong University Press. Yoon, H-K., Bolger, D. J., Kwon, O-S., & Perfetti, C. A. (2002). Subsyllabic units in reading: A difference between Korean and English. In L. Verhoeven. C.Elbro, & P. Reitsma (Eds.), Precursors of functional literacy (pp. 139-163). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

2001

  • Perfetti, C. A. (2001). Reading skills. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.). International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (pp. 12800-12805). Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Perfetti, C.A. (2001). Reading skill. In International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences. Cognitive Science Editor, W. Kintsch. The Netherlands:Kluwer.
  • Perfetti, C.A, & Hart, L. (2001). The lexical bases of comprehension skill. In D. Gorfien (Ed.), On the consequences of meaning selection (pp. 67-86). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Perfetti, C.A. & Sandak, R. (2001) Literacy education. In N. J. Smelser & P. B. Baltes (Eds.) International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 8975-8981). Oxford: Pergamon.
  • Perfetti, C.A., Van Dyke, J.A., & Hart, L. (2001). The psycholinguistics of basic literacy. In M. McGroarty (Ed.), Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 21, 127-149.
  • Rayner, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D. & Seidenberg, M.S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological science in the public interest, 2(2), 31-74. A supplement to Psychological Science.
  • Rayner, K., Foorman, B.R., Perfetti, C.A., Pesetsky, D., & Seidenberg, M.S. (2001). How should reading be taught. Scientific American (March, 2001). (Extracted from Psychological Science article)
  • Tan, L.H., Liu, H.L., Perfetti, C.A., Spinks, J.A., Fox, P.T., & Gao, J.H. (2001). The neural system underlying Chinese logograph reading. NeuroImage, 13, 836-846.

2000

  • Booth, J., Perfetti, C., MacWhinney, B., & Hunt, S. (2000). The association of rapid temporal perception with orthographic and phonological processing in children and adults with reading impairment. Scientific Studies of Reading, 4 (2), 101-132.
  • Britt, M. A., Perfetti, C. A., Van Dyke, J. & Gabrys, G. (2000) The Sourcer's Apprentice: A tool for document-supported history instruction. In P. Stearns, P. Seixas, & S. Weinberg (Eds.), Knowing, teaching and learning history: National and international perspectives (pp. 437-470). New York University Press.
  • Perfetti, C.A., & Sandak, R. (2000). Reading optimally builds on spoken language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5(1), 32-50.
  • ks J.A., Liu, Y., Perfetti, C.A., & Tan, L.H. (2000). Reading Chinese characters for meaning: the role of phonological information, Cognition 76(1), B1-B11.
  • Tan L. H., Spinks J. A., Gao, J. H., Liu, H.L., Perfetti, C. A., Xiong, J., Stofer, K. A., Pu, Y., Liu, Y., & Fox, P. T. (2000). Brain activation in the processing of Chinese characters and words: A functional MRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 10(1), 16-27

1999

  • Booth, J. R., Perfetti, C. A., & MacWhinney, B. (1999). Quick, automatic, and general activation of orthographic and phonological representations in young readers. Developmental Psychology, 35, 3-19.
  • Britt, M. A., Rouet, J.-F., & Perfetti, C. A. (1999). Content integration and source separation in learning from multiple texts. In S. R. Goldman, A. C. Graesser, & P. van den Broek (Eds.), Narrative comprehension, causality, and coherence: Essays in honor of Tom Trabasso. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (1999). Comprehending written language: A blueprint of the reader. In C. Brown & P. Hagoort (Eds.), The neurocognition of language (pp. 167-208). Oxford University Press.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (1999). Cognitive research and the misconceptions of reading education. In J. Oakhill & R. Beard (Eds.), Reading development and the teaching of reading. Oxford: Blackwell. [Essentially the same paper as Perfetti (1995) Cognitive research can inform reading education. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 106-115.]
  • Perfetti, C.A., Rouet, J.-F., & Britt, M.A. (1999). Toward a theory of documents representation. In H. van Oostendorp & S. Goldman (Eds.), The construction of mental representations during reading (pp. 99-122). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Perfetti, C.A. & Tan, L.H. (1999). The constituency model of Chinese word identification. In A. Inhoff, H.-S. Chen, & J. Wang (Eds.) Reading Chinese script: A cognitive analysis (pp. 115-134). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Tan, L. H., & Perfetti, C. A. (1999). Phonological activation in visual identification of Chinese two-character words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25, 382-393.
  • Tan, L.H., & Perfetti, C.A. (1999). Phonological and associative inhibition in the early stages of English word identification: Evidence from backward masking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25, 382-393.
  • Xu, B. And Perfetti, C.A. (1999) Nonstrategic subjective threshold effects in phonemic masking. Memory and cognition, 27(1), 26-36.
  • Zhang, S., Perfetti, C.A., & Yang, Hui (1999). Whole-word, frequency-general phonology in semantic processing of Chinese characters. Journal of Experimental
  • Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 25 (4), 858-875.

1998

  • Perfetti, C. A. (1998). Two basic questions about reading and learning to read. In P. Reitsma & L. Verhoeven (Eds.), Problems and interventions in literacy development (pp. 15-47). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Perfetti, C. A. (1998). The limits of co-occurrence: Tools and theories in language research. Discourse Processes, 25, 363-377.
  • Perfetti, C.A., & Marron, M. A. (1998). Learning to read: Literacy acquisition by children and adults. In D.A. Wagner (Ed.). Advances in adult literacy research and development. Hampton Press.
  • Perfetti, C.A., & Tan, L.H. (1998). The time course of graphic, phonological, and semantic activation in Chinese character identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24, 101-118.
  • Rouet, J-F., Marron, M.A., Perfetti, C.A. & Favart, M. (1998) Understanding historical controversies: Students' evaluation and use of documentary evidence. In J. Voss & M. Carretero (Eds.) International Review of History Education: Volume 2, Learning and Reasoning in History. London: Woburn Press.
  • Tan, L.H., & Perfetti, C.A. (1998). Phonological codes as early sources of constraint in Chinese word identification: A review of current discoveries and theoretical accounts. In "Cognitive processing of Chinese and Japanese" special issue. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 10, 165-200. Reprinted in C.K. Leong and K. Tamaoka (Eds), Cognitive Processes of the Chinese and the Japanese languages. Series in Neuropsychology and Cognition, R. Joshi, Series Editor. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
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