Assessment for Early Identification: Tools to Identify K-2 Children at Risk for Reading Difficulty
Please note that some investigators at CSL are currently investigating ways for early identification of dyslexic children (see the PAR test below). There are several effective instruments for early identification and the three described below vary in their make-up and the ways in which they can be used. We encourage you to get in touch with the publishers for further information.
Predictive Assessment of Reading
PAR was developed and nationally standardized by Frank Wood and Lynn Flowers at Wake Forest University School of Medicine in Winston-Salem, NC.
P.O. Box 20008
Winston-Salem, NC 27120-0008
The PAR is a brief (15 to 20 minutes) test for children as young as kindergarten, to predict future reading achievement out to grade 12. PAR has a high parallel forms reliability (reliability coefficient of .94) and PAR's predictions of concurrent reading scores are accurate to within 11 percentile points for 95% of children (technically, a validity coefficient of .90+). Future reading scores are accurately predicted within 16 points. The predictions are equally accurate within majority race, African-American, and Latino sub-populations. PAR's high accuracy derives from its ability to test those particular skills that extensive research has shown are central to early reading development. These are (1) Naming vocabulary: correctly naming common objects, from pictures; (2) Naming speed: speed of naming of letters or digits that are already known; (3) Phonemic awareness: recognition of specific sounds in a word; (4) Letter and word recognition: correctly pronouncing printed letters and words.
Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS),
created through the Virginia Early Intervention Reading Initiative
853 W. Main Street
PO Box 800785
Charlottesville, VA 22908
Faculty from the University of Virginia’s Curry School of Education created this assessment tool, which is available for a nominal per student fee by those outside of Virginia. Individual children’s scores are tabulated with links to the activities on the Website that support any student deficits.
Texas Primary Reading Inventory (K-2)
Texas Education Agency
PO Box 13817
Austin, TX 78711-3817
Kit includes a teacher’s guide, an intervention activities guide, magnetic board and set of magnetic letters, laminated story cards, and twenty-six student record sheets for K, 1, and 2 classrooms.
Recommended Resources for Parents
- Adams, Marilyn; B. Foorman; I. Lundberg; and T. Beeler. Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 1998.
- Blachman, Benita; E. Ball; R. Black; and D. Tangel. Road to the Code: A Phonological Awareness Program for Young Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes, 2000.
- Fitzpatrick, Jo. Phonemic Awareness: Playing with Sounds to Strengthen Beginning Reading Skills. Creative Teaching Press, 1997.
- Hall, Susan; and Moats, Louisa. Parenting a Struggling Reader: A Guide to Diagnosing and Finding Help for Your Child’s Reading Difficulties. New York: Broadway Books, 2002.
- National Institute for Literacy. “Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read (Kindergarten Through Grade 3)”. Download at http://www.nifl.gov
- Oo-pples and Boo-noo-noos: Songs and Activities for Phonemic Awareness. Harcourt Brace.
- Intervention Activities Guide: Kindergarten, First Grade, Second Grade. Texas Education Agency.
- Let’s Listen: A Phonological Awareness Program for Yong Children. Abrams and Company, Waterbury, Conn.
- Identification and Assessment to Prevent Reading Failure in Young Children.
- American Foundation of Teachers. “The Unique Power of Reading and How of Unleash It.”
- National Academy pf Sciences. Starting Out Right (Summary of Preventing Reading Difficulties in Yong Children).
- International Dyslexia Association. Basic Facts Every Layperson Should Know; Basic Fact Every Professional Should Know (dyslexia Emeritus Series).